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In 1895, a German physicist named Wilhelm Roentgen fortuitously discovered X-rays while experimenting with evacuated glass tubes through which an electric current was passed.
Roentgen discovered he could take a picture of the bones in his hand with the mysterious new rays.
Dose equivalent is the product of the absorbed dose and the QF for that type of radiation.
It expresses the risk of harm resulting from exposure to different types of radiation on a common scale. Because a rem is relatively large amount, the millirem (1/1000 of a rem) is often used instead.
Ionization occurs when electrons are dislodged from a neutral atom.
When this happens an atom becomes positively charged and some energy is transferred.
In 1898, Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the first radioactive elements, radium-226 and polonium-210.The momentous discoveries of these physicists led to a rapid advancement of scientific knowledge about radiation and radioactivity, as well as to many practical uses.For purposes of radiation safety, only radiation with the capability to cause ionization is of concern.Other familiar types of electromagnetic wave radiation include: visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, microwaves, and radiowaves.These differ from X-rays and gamma rays only in wave frequency and energy.